Image de Sharon McCutcheon

2022

Populismo, palabra clave en el debate político español en Twitter

Shchinova, Nadezda

Référence 

Shchinova, Nadezda. Populismo, palabra clave en el debate político español en Twitter. IV Congreso Internacional RECoD “En torno a la comunicación digital en español: Cultura participativa y discurso en la red” (Universidad de Alicante, Alicante, España, 07/10/2022).

Résumé

La presente comunicación analiza el discurso político en Twitter en el contexto de España a finales de 2019. Este estudio se centra en los discursos en torno a los términos populismo, populismos, populista, populistas en los tuits de los principales partidos políticos y sus líderes participantes en las elecciones generales de noviembre 2019 (PSOE, PP, UP, Cs, VOX). El corpus de tuits que contienen el token populis*, es decir, los términos populismo(s), populista(s), se analiza a través de una metodología híbrida para el análisis del discurso digital (Alcántara-Plá, 2020). En primer lugar, el análisis se centra en determinar qué actor político utiliza el término, a quién se le atribuye la etiqueta populista y con qué frecuencia. En segundo lugar, se analizan las coapariciones con populis*. Por último, a través del análisis discursivo (Coesemans & De Cock, 2017; Kranert, 2020; Mancera Rueda & Pano Alamán, 2013), se analizan los usos contextualizados y los elementos del significado del término, así como las estrategias lingüísticas y discursivas características de los tuits en el período analizado. Este estudio muestra que los términos populismo(s), populista(s) desempeñan un papel importante en el debate político en Twitter en el periodo electoral y previo a la formación del Gobierno de coalición. Por un lado, populis* es presente en los tuits de todos los partidos analizados, aunque con frecuencia y significados diversos. Por otro lado, populis* es utilizado para atacar y descalificar a un adversario, así como para dar la representación legítima de su propio partido por oposición al “populismo” asociado a conceptos variados según las inclinaciones ideológicas de cada partido. Si bien en el corpus la etiqueta populista se le atribuye mayoritariamente a Podemos (UP), un partido clasificado frecuentemente como populista, el mensaje que contiene el término apunta a Pedro Sánchez (PSOE) y busca deslegitimar la coalición entre PSOE y UP.  

Keywords: political discourse, Twitter, political keywords, (de)legitimisation, Spanish

References

Alcántara-Plá, M. (2020). Metodología híbrida para el análisis del discurso digital. El ejemplo de ‘democracia’ en Twitter. Cuadernos AISPI, 16(2), 25–44. https://doi.org/10.14672/2.2020.1696

Coesemans, R., & De Cock, B. (2017). Self-reference by politicians on Twitter: Strategies to adapt to 140 characters. Journal of Pragmatics, 116, 37-50. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2016.12.005

Kranert, M. (2020). When Populists Call Populists Populists: ‘Populism’ and ‘Populist’ as Political Keywords in German and British Political Discourse. In M. Kranert (Ed.), Discursive Approaches to Populism Across Disciplines: The Return of Populists and the People (pp. 31–60). Springer International Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-55038-7_2

Mancera Rueda, A., & Pano Alamán, A. (2013). El discurso político en Twitter: Análisis de mensajes que ‘trinan’. Anthropos.

A pragmatic analysis of populis* in French and Spanish parliamentary debates

Shchinova, Nadezda

Référence 

Shchinova, Nadezda. A pragmatic analysis of populis* in French and Spanish parliamentary debates. Political Discourse: New Approaches to New Challenges? (Université de Lorraine, France, 07/03/2022).

Résumé

This comparative study analyses quantitatively and qualitatively the occurrences of the term populis*—i.e., populism(s), populist(s)—in two datasets containing parliamentary debates that took place in 2019 in the French National Assembly and the Spanish Congress of Deputies. The study investigates populism as a keyword in discourse (Kranert, 2020; Schröter et al., 2019; Williams, 1985) and aims to determine the uses, the meanings, and the pragmatic functions of this widely employed polysemic term claimed to be the “main political buzzword of the 21st century” (Mudde & Kaltwasser, 2017, p. 1). The token populis* is a search word that allows for a comparative analysis of the following terms: populisme(s)/populiste(s) in French and populismo(s)/populistas(s) in Spanish. First, I examine the discursive contexts in which populis* occurs in order to determine the frequency of occurrence and the collocations of populis* in each dataset. Second, I focus on a sample of concordance lines and examine who labels whom as populist and what is the pragmatic function of this label. The study shows that in both datasets, the term has a variety of uses and meanings. However, there are some differences regarding the choice of the linguistic form of populis* and the collocations in French and Spanish parliamentary debates. In both datasets, the terms are mainly employed with a negative value linked to different pragmatic functions. Used with a negative connotation, discourses containing populis* disqualify political opponents, but not necessarily label political actors that are classified as populist in academia. Moreover, discourses disqualifying and stigmatising "populism" or "populists" are linked to other concepts, such as nationalism, terrorism, communism, which differ depending on the political leanings of a political actor. In addition, self-legitimisation occurs in discourses that, on the one hand, target an opponent and, on the other hand, self-position as an anti-populist response.  However, there are instances of populis* with a positive value in discourses concerning different conceptions of democracy. Used with a positive implied meaning, instances of populis* appear together with references to "the people" and contain metalinguistic comments on the definition and the use of both "populism" and "democracy". 

Keywords: parliamentary discourse, political keywords, pragmatic functions, populism, France, Spain

 

References 

Kranert, M. (2020). When Populists Call Populists Populists: ‘Populism’ and ‘Populist’ as Political Keywords in German and British Political Discourse. In M. Kranert (Ed.), Discursive Approaches to Populism Across Disciplines: The Return of Populists and the People (pp. 31–60). Springer International Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-55038-7_2 

Mudde, C., & Kaltwasser, C. R. (2017). Populism: A Very Short Introduction. In Populism: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press. https://www.veryshortintroductions.com/view/10.1093/actrade/9780190234874.001.0001/actrade-9780190234874 

Schröter, M., Veniard, M., Taylor, C., & Blätte, A. (2019). A comparative analysis of the keyword multicultural(ism) in French, British, German and Italian migration discourse. In V. Lorella & A. Musolff (Eds.), Migration and Media: Discourses about identities in crisis. John Benjamins Publishing Company. https://benjamins.com/catalog/dapsac.81.02sch 

Williams, R. (1985). Keywords: A Vocabulary of Culture and Society. Oxford University Press. 

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